- Full Work Name: Symphony No. 022 in E♭ major, Hob. I/22 “Philosopher”
- Key: E♭ major
- Form: Symphony
- Composer: Franz Joseph Haydn
- Year(s) Published/Written: 1764
- Period: Classical
- Catalogue Number: Hob. I/22
- Work Score: Click Here
ScoringLike other symphonies composed around this time, the work was written for the small number of players (less than twenty) on retainer at the Esterházy court. The scoring is unusual in its use of two cor anglais (English horns) in place of the more common oboe. The rest of it stays true to convention with two bassoons, horns, timpani, continuo (harpsichord) and strings. The horns play a prominent role in all but the second movement, and Haydn’s choice of E♭ major may have been dictated by the fact that the valveless horns of the time sounded best when played as E♭ instruments (that is, with E♭ crooks inserted).
FormThe symphony is in four movements:
- Adagio, 4/4
- Presto, 4/4
- Menuet e Trio, 3/4
- Finale: Presto, 6/8
Second versionAnother version of the piece, well known in Haydn’s time, has three movements with the second movement of the original version coming first, followed by a different movement that is marked andante grazioso in 3/8 and concluding with the same finale as in the original version. The second movement is thought to be spurious, which has led to the belief that this arrangement is not Haydn’s own. H. C. Robbins Landon suggests that this arrangement was likely made to the original composition due to the “strangely original” adagio and the existence of cors anglais, which were not available in many areas. It is precisely these elements that make this symphony so popular, so this version is seldom performed in modern times.
Symphony No. 22 in E♭ major, ‘Philosopher’, Hob. I/22